In Grade 8, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations; (2) grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships; (3) analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem.
Key Contents: The Number System • Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. Expressions and Equations • Work with radicals and integer exponents. • Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. • Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. Functions • Define, evaluate, and compare functions. • Use functions to model relationships between quantities. Geometry • Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. • Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. • Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones and spheres. Statistics and Probability • Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.